Germany faces a sure recession if Russian gas supplies, already failing, come to a complete halt, an industry body has warned.
European Union countries have been outlining measures to deal with a supply crisis. The EU relied on Russia for up to 40% of its pre-war gas needs, rising to 55% for Germany, leaving a huge gap to fill.
Russian gas is still being pumped through Ukraine, but at a reduced rate. The Nord Stream 1 pipeline under the Baltic, a vital supply route for Germany, is running at just 40% capacity, which Moscow says is because Western sanctions are hampering repairs. Europe says that this is a pretext to reduce flows.
In response to the crisis, some states have temporarily reversed plans to close coal-fired power plants.